How Air conditioner works?

Air conditioner

Air conditioners are one of the greatest gems of the modern age. It is mostly used in the summer season. But today people use Air conditioner in every season. From the office to the house, it is everywhere. In addition to this, it has use in schools, major companies, Theater and many other things.

When it’s a hot summer day outside, but your home is 50 degrees faster, you may be wondering, “How does an air conditioner work?” To sum it up, the air conditioner removes heat and moisture from the air inside and puts it outside to finally cool your home.

 Today we are going to discuss about Air condition and its creation.

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Who invented first Air conditioner?

Willis Carrier invented the first modern air conditioning system On July 17th, 1902. His discovery spawned thousands of industries. Which strengthens our economy. In the summer season, people prefer to watch movies in theaters to avoid it. Precise control of temperature and humidity has also enabled the development of indoor shopping malls, transatlantic flights, and computers and servers that power the Internet Today’s “modern” cooling systems still operate on the same basic principles, providing comfortably chilled air to people inside. So, how do air conditioners work?

How Air conditioner works?

Air conditioners come in a variety of shapes and sizes. But its basic principle is the same, to deliver cooling. Air conditioners provide cool air by actually removing heat and moisture from the air inside your home or indoors. It returns the cooled air to the indoor space, and transfers unwanted heat and moisture outside. A standard air conditioner or cooling system uses a special chemical called a refrigerant, and has three main mechanical components: a compressor, a condenser coil, and an evaporator coil.

These components work together to quickly turn the refrigerant from gas to liquid and back again. The compressor raises the pressure and temperature of the refrigerant gas and sends it to the condenser coil. Where it is convert into a liquid. The refrigerant then returns to the inside of the house and enters the evaporator coil. Here the liquid refrigerant evaporates, and cools the indoor coil. The fan blows air inside the cold evaporator coil where the indoor heat is absorbed into the refrigerant. The cold air then circulates throughout the house while the hot evaporated gas is sent out to the compressor. The heat is then release into the outside air as the refrigerant returns to the liquid state. This cycle continues until your home reaches the desired temperature.

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Air conditioner

Mostly air conditioners rely heavily on a type of split-system technology that we call “central air”. But air conditioners are use for many other purposes besides cooling the air. Such as indoor humidity and air quality also helps in controlling air flow. So before we answer the question of how the air conditioner works, it will be helpful to know what the general system makes.

Generally speaking, there are two categories of air conditioners: central cooling systems and ductless split systems. While both work to cool your home, these systems work quite differently.

Central cooling systems

Central air conditioners are commonly use to cool your entire home. For this they use small pipes to carry the cold air to the corners of the house. The central air conditioner has an outdoor component and an indoor component connected by a copper tube, except that it is a packaged unit located entirely outside the home.

The smallest possible size for a central air conditioner is 1.5 tons. And as a result, the central air-cooling system takes up more space than a ductless system. In addition, these types of units determine their work capacity according to the season. Such units can reach a ratio of 22 SEER, which is a measure of how energy efficient the air conditioner is in the spring and summer months. According to the Department of Energy, the minimum SEER ratings in the United States are at least 14, so while Central AC can cool your entire home, they are not always the most energy-efficient option and may come with higher energy costs.

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Ductless split systems

Unlike the central air-system, the ductless system is used to cool only one room or part, instead of the whole house. Ductless systems are inherently different from central cooling systems because air flows from indoor units throughout the house to the individual room instead of the duct. Ductless systems also have indoor and outdoor components, but unlike a central cooling system, this is not a 1: 1 ratio. Instead, the ductless system can have five indoor units for each outdoor unit. This means that up to five units can be installed throughout the house for cooling up to five rooms without the presence of ducts.

When the ductless outdoor and indoor ratio is 1: 1, it is called mini-split. When the ratio is greater than 1: 1, it is known as multi-split. Because these units are designed to cool small spaces, they come in smaller sizes, with the smallest being .75 tons. Ductless split systems can reach 33 SEER, making them a more energy-efficient alternative than central cooling systems. Using them is likely to save you money on your energy bill despite their high initial cost.

Air conditioner types

Understanding the different types of air conditioners will help you decide what is right for your home.

Central air conditioner

The Central Air Conditioner has to have both indoor unit and outdoor unit. And it is one of the most common type of air conditioner. As we mentioned above, central heating and cooling systems, such as central air conditioners, work to feed air into your home through ductwork. These units are ideal for homes with a basement or crawl space, as the interior can be removed into unused space.

Packaged air conditioner

A packaged air-conditioner is a type of central air-conditioner. These units are great for homeowners who want central air conditioning, but have nowhere to store a large indoor unit in their home. Because, it does not have 1: 1 indoor to outdoor unit split. Instead, packaged systems have two in one and are located just outside the home.

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 Dual fuel system

Dual fuel systems are used for heating and cooling needs. In addition, it is made up of a heat pump and furnace instead of an air-conditioner, in which the heat pump provides cooling during the spring and summer months. The heat pump can do both heating and cooling, so in a dual fuel system it can switch between functions depending on what is needed. Dual fuel systems work best in mild to extremely cold climates, so if you live in a place with changing temperatures, a dual fuel system may be right for you.

Ductless split systems

We already discuss ductless split system in above paragraph.

Window air conditioner

Window air conditioners are true to their name – they are air conditioners install in your home window. These air conditioners work just like a ductless AC unit in which they cool a room in your home. But, they are install just like the central AC units in which they are usually half inside and half outside. Window air conditioners can be noisy and unpleasant to look at, but they are inexpensive to install and maintain.

Air conditioner components

Now that you know about the different types of air conditioners, let’s look at the main parts that make them.


The thermostat serves to control the air conditioner. It sends a signal to the HVAC system when it is time to cool down. There are two different types of thermostats: electronic and electromechanical. Electromechanical thermostats have metal strips and mercury that indicate to the air conditioner that it is time to cool down. Electronic thermostats, by contrast, have sensors that read the temperature.


Refrigerant is an essential part of the air conditioner and without it the whole system stops working. The refrigerant flows throughout the air conditioner. And works to cool your home. It absorbs and releases heat in various stages to cool your home. The cooling process begins when the fan blows the hot air inside your home into the air conditioner and the refrigerant absorbs the heat inside the evaporator coil.

 Evaporator coil

The evaporative coil is the place to absorb heat. When the fan blows hot air from your home onto a cold evaporator coil, the cooling liquid inside the refrigerant absorbs heat completely from the air, then continues through the air conditioner.


After the refrigerant absorbs the heat in the evaporator coil, it goes into the compressor. The compressor increases the pressure of the existing hot refrigerant. Which further increases its temperature so that it is warmer than the outside temperature. When in the compressor, the refrigerant turns into gas. Once the gaseous refrigerant is warmer than the outside climate, it can distribute heat outside.

Condenser coil

From the condenser coil compressor it receives hot, pressurized aerated refrigerant. The condenser coil is design to release the heat that the refrigerant carries out. This cools the refrigerant and turns it into a liquid, ready to absorb more heat from your home.

Expansion valve

The main use of the expansion valve is to reduce the air pressure in the refrigerator. When the refrigerant leaves the condenser coil, even though it releases most of its heat out, it is still too hot to re-enter the evaporator coil. And the process is repeated.

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 Air conditioning FAQs

How does central air work?

Central air conditioning works by circulating the air in your home until it reaches your desired temperature. Central air systems draw hot air from your home, release its heat and cool it, then distribute fresh-cold air through a system of ducts in your home. In this way, each room reaches the ideal temperature.

How does ductless air conditioning work?

Ductless air conditioners work to cool only one room at a time. Unlike central air conditioning, which cools your entire home through a system of ducts, ductless air conditioning releases cold air directly into a room. As we mentioned earlier, a ductless system requires one outdoor unit and at least one indoor unit. If you want to cool more than just one room but still use ductless air conditioning, you can install five indoor units that will work with the singular outdoor unit at the same time.

Does the air conditioner take in air from outside?

No. The air conditioner removes heat and moisture from the air inside your home, then distributes the heat and moisture outside while returning new cool air to the house. Air conditioners never take air from outside and put it in your house. Instead, they work by cooling the air that is already in your home.

Can an air conditioner improve indoor air quality?

Air conditioners can improve air quality. After heat and moisture have been absorb from the air inside your home, the air is filter for dust, lint and debris. The heat is move out, but the air that stays in and returns to your home is cleaner than before, resulting in better air quality.

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